[ Children, a general reminder, these are the notes from my lifetime Bible marginal collectings. They are not intended to be read as a story, but are a help for the serious student who wants to come to know better what God has said. Every person has to dig deeper into the Scriptures for him/herself. The pastors and Bible translators generally do a good job, but they are still one more layer of human interpretation between us and the Word of God. (A parenthetic caution - departing very far from the historic interpretation of any scripture is very, very risky.) We refer to the Greek roots often, not because the Common (KOINE) Greek is more precise, but because it is a "dead" dialect and doesn't wriggle around so much, and of course, because the very best and earliest recorded New Testament documents were recorded in it. These notes, thus, are best read with a Greek interlinear text open and with a pencil in hand, or next best, with a King James Version AND your favorite version also open and with a pencil in hand. There is no ONE BEST version or translation of Scripture, except, perhaps, the one made in your heart; that one causes you to know the God who created and loves you and me. Knowing about God and knowing what He has said is a good first step in coming to know Him, which step cannot be skipped if we are to come to love Him. Read my essay on the definition of LOVE every once in a while.
Some may ask, "Can't we just love God and forget about all this study?" Those who ask, underestimate the standards of The Holy God; perhaps more seriously, they also underestimate the depth of their own sinfulness; some seem to think God grades on the curve. Three BIG mistakes I wish to help you to avoid. dad]
ps, when you see ( ) it means that I highlighted that verse in my Bible.
Using these notes, if you can't make at least two good teaching lessons out of each chapter, then neither you nor I have done the job.
The Acts of the Apostles (Peter and Paul - we know very little of the acts of the other apostles - as Col6:1-23) or, The Acts of the Holy Spirit in and thru the Church. Written by Luke in about 61-62 A.D. If we accept a later date we have difficulty explaining why it skips Pauls trial outcome in 62 or his death in 68 - or the siege and destruction of Jerusalem ending in 70. The great theme of the book is the resurrection of Christ, about 40 times, see Paul before the Sanhedron, Felix, Agrippa, same issue (13,14,18,24). Peter opened the door of the Gospel to the Jew (2), Samaritan (8) and Gentile (10), but after (5) the story pretty much leaves the Jew. If one were to divide the book Jew/Gentile it would be Peter - ch 1-12 somewhat to the Jew, but Paul - 13-28 clearly to the gentiles.
The three "G" men of Acts: Peter - growing; Stephen - glowing; Paul - going.
It will take about 45 minutes to read the book in a modern speech version such as J.B. Phillips, or about 1 hour in the KJV, others somewhat in between (we timed them.)
Acts 1 (chapter # 1019 in the King James Version of the Bible; there are 1189 chapters in the total Bible.)
3. PATHEIN passion = suffering; TEKMARIOIS "infallible proofs" see Jas1:17; "40 days" there are 9 different 40 day periods in Bi. listed 17 times: 1)Flood Ge7:12-17, 2)1st law, Ex24:18 + De9:9 3)2nd law, Ex34:28+De9:18,25, 4)Spies Nu13:23, 14:34, 5)Goliath 1Sa17:16, 6)Horeb 1K19:8, 7)Jonah3:4, 8)Tempt Mt4:2, Mk1:13, Lk4:2, 9)here.
5 "not many days" about 10, see Mt3:11
6 is the rather self-serving question, 7,8 the answer. Essentially, Jesus let them know that their vision was too small; not Israel only, but the whole world. see 5:32; Philip obeyed 8:27+Mt 12:42, besides, we are unable to handle "too much" information. If He gave them the exact times they (we) would use that knowledge improperly (see how the J.W. has merchandised this theme for short term advantage, but long term disadvantage.)
6,7 CHRONO "time" each, as by a clock or calendar; "own" contrast w. v25.
8 not "animal magnetism," not "dynamic force" but "spiritual power;" Jerusalem ch1-7, Judaea 8-12, uttermost part 13-28.
14 "one accord" see 2:1,44,46, 4:24, 5:12, 15:25. Last mention of Mary.
15 "names," "120" This means they recognized some sort of "membership" very early on. (Jesus had earlier appeared to 500)
16 "this scripture must needs have been fulfilled"
17 Peshitta uses "vote" or "lot" also v26.
18 see Col3:12
20 "book of Psalms" calls it a "book," indicating they recognized it as having clear organization.
22 this should have placed a limit on apostolic succession - but it didn't.
25 "own place" contrast w. v7
1"Fully come," "one accord," "one place" God is not bothered by noise, provided it be "one accord" and in Him.
2FEROMENAS "being borne," PNOAS," not the usual word (see diff in Mt14:24) for "mighty wind" w.v3 "fire" see Ex19:16-18 "it" and in v3 "it" not "they" therefore THE spirit, not the tongue(s) of fire.
4"all filled" see 3:10, 4:8,31, 5:17, 6:3,5, 7:35, 9:17 also 10:46, 11:17,24 13:9,52+Eph5:18
6"because that every man heard them speak in his own language.
11"We do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God." see Gen11:9 at least 14 languages - and "Arabians" listed last, but listed
12 EXISTANTO, ecstatic
17 "I will" HORASEIS from which we get horoscopes, "visions"
18 "I will"
19 "I will"
20 EPIFANA, "notable" an epiphany from the LXX!
22 Used cultural identity of Jesus.
23 "determinate" a boundary or limit, a horizon. PROGNOSIE "foreknowledge"
25 PROOROMNA "foresaw" stared at it beforehand, same ref. v31
30 HORKO, "oath"
31 same ref.v25
32 +10:40,41, 1Pet1:21
36"Lord" the word used by Jews in placed of Jehovah, since J. was too holy to be pronounced by mankind
37"Now when they heard this," contrast with Is30:10, "What shall we do?"
38"Repent, and be baptized - ye shall receive"
40"Save yourselves from this untoward generation" membership
42 "steadfastly" 4 things 1)apostles' doctrine 2)fellowship, 3)breaking of bread, 4)prayers; KOINONIA + V44 KOINA
43 4 essentials to church life 1)43, 2)44,45, 3)46, 4)47
44"all things common" +4:32
46"with one accord"+ "continuing - in the temple - from house to house" the apostles went from house church to house church.
47"having favour with all the people - the Lord added"
1 read 4:3
2"Was carried" "beautiful" made of polished Corinthian Brass, golden yellow in color.
5"gave heed unto the, expecting to receive something of them" typical beggar mentality - they will pay attention to whatever you say as long as it will benefit them right now.
6 ( )
7"lifted him up
8"walking and leaping and praising God" usually cripples have to learn to walk, so this was truly a miracle. If it was only a psychological miracle, it was still a complete cure - how could he go back on his actions - and on his praises to God?
10 EPIGINOSKON "knew" or "recognized" see v16
12"at this" "OR" "on us" "as though;" the word EUSEBEIA "piety" is the name of an ancient Jewish historian - did his name speak of his character or of his parents hope for him? +2Tim3:5
15 ARCHAGON "prince" or "author" our word "architect."
16 footnote in text ONOMATOS "name" Objective genitive;cf."the fear of God"=the fear which has God for its object; and see Gal.2:20, etc. OIDATE "know" an inner knowing, contrast w. v10, so is he saying, "You there 'recognized' him, and you 'know' in your hearts that it actually is him and that we have not pulled a trick on you by substituting someone who looks like him?"
17( ) AGNOIAN our word "agnostic."
18 Foundation for the doctrine of inspiration of scripture. +v21
19( )"therefore" points back to v18
26 PROTON "first" it WAS to the Jew first, we gentiles come later.
1 STRATAGOS "commandant" this was the closest thing the Jews had left to a policeman.
2 DIAPONOUMENOI let's take the word apart: DIA "through," PONOU "pondered," MENOI "mind" They rolled this thing around in their minds - it was not a snap decision. DIDASKEIN the disciples taught, they did not indoctrinate. Their goal was not to be rabble rousers or pep rally cheerleaders, but to inform people so they could make an intelligent commitment - but they did make a call to commitment - KATAGGELLEIN "announced."
3 "Arrested them." These guys had stewed over this thing all day and finally had to act as it was growing late.
4 5000 decisions! That's a whole bunch of people, the authorities could see that this "thing" was in danger of getting completely out of hand.
6 This is the who's who of the priestly crowds, so far, no Pharisees or politicians.
7 "by what name" The attitude of professional religionists: "WE give license to preach what WE authorize, what right have you to go elsewhere?" Since this verse is all about "authority" it is interesting that the word for "power" is DUNAMEI.
9 ANAKRINOMETHA, "examined" note the word "crime" in the Greek word. It was as a criminal interrogation. (this is the usual Greek word for "examine.") SESOSTAI "made whole" or "healed" but the word in v10 is HUGIAS "whole" The real miracle is always "wholeness."
10"Be it known unto you" you who pretend to be ignorant; "crucified," with 11 "you" note how tactful! see also 1Pet2:7,8 Note that Peter uses "name" here and in v12 as they had demanded in v7.
12( ) see Hos13:4, Jn14:6
13 IDIOTAI root word for "idiot" in Greek it refers to a "private man," hence not a "public figure," but frankly it is what the leaders think of us - laymen - citizens - peasants - idiots. Luke, the writer, uses these technical terms to show that they were not formally trained in the recognized schools. "when they saw the boldness...they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus." - may this be said of us. The boldness of 13, 14 offset somewhat their (the ones in v5) contempt of their lack of credentials. Their disdain for Jesus was shaken by the presence of the healed man - what COULD they say? v16 shows they were losing control of the situation.
14 TETHERAPEUMENON note the word "therapeutic" it was a physically observable healing.
15 They went into executive session.
16 The Peshitta translates "notable" as "open" and "cannot deny" as "powerless to deny"
18 "no more uttering, no more teaching of the Name of Jesus." [Hmm, the Jews would not utter the name of Jehovah because it was too holy, and now they command the apostles not to utter the name of Jesus because....because why?]
19 "whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye."
23 "And being let go,...their own company,...reported" They went, and reported and prayed and then !
24 HOMOTHUMADON "with one accord" lit "same passion", "same breathing hard"
25 This verse puzzles us; "Why do the heathen rage? - Why the hatred against God and against good? Why?" And also there is a problem with the linguistics of this verse. It can't be constructed this way according to the rules of grammar - so what to do with our concept of inerrancy? see also 1:16
27 "child" same wd v30
28 ( )
29 KAI TA NUN the emphasis is on "the NOW." see also 5:38 "boldness" this prayer was answered in v31 & following
31 "spake the word of God with boldness"
32 KARDIA KAI PSUCHAY MIA "one heart...one soul" see also 2:44
33 DUNAMEI MEGALAY...CHARIS TE MEGALAY "power great...grace great"
34 This was the year of Jubilee - the 28th since the children of Israel settled in Canaan 1400 years before.
36 "Barnabas" later, Paul's companion; a Christian whose testimony was so powerful that he came to be known by his nickname - means "son of consolation" or "son of prophecy" see 11:24, Luke was impressed with this man.
37 AGROU a field, agricultural land, not a house; 5:1 uses KTAMA "a property owned"
1 see note 4:37; Ananias is from Hebrew and means "God is gracious;" Sapphira is from Aramaic and means "beautiful."
3 EPLAROSEN "filled" the same Gk root is used in Eph5:18 to speak of a heart filled with the Holy Spirit - what a contrast. Note that here the lie is to the Holy Spirit, in v4 to God, proof that the HS is God. NOSPHISASTHAI "to keep back" or to misappropriate" only use of this word in the NT. For this problem see Achan and Josh6:19,7:1, 19-26.
5 see Lev10:2
9 It's deadly for a wife to lie for her husband.
12 "with one accord
17 "Sadducees" did not believe in Angels! Ho!
18( ) Different from a Roman jail? + v24.
19"angel of the Lord" PANTA TA HRAMATA, NASB says "whole."
21"the council...and ALL the senate" M.H. says 70 on The Great Sanhedrin, + 23 each of the 2 groups that made up the Senate or Elders = total 116 judges. So God's deliverance made for maximum political exposure and maximum confusion.
24"they doubted of them whereunto this would grow; STRATAGOS TOU IEROU, NASB = "Commander of Temple guards" - did they have power to jail (v18) but not to imprison? Power to flog (v40) but not to put to death?
26"for they feared the people" [a little Gk lesson - BIAS, "violence" evidently a "bias" is an inner compulsion, an inner violence to the thinking process.]
28,29( ) see 4:19,5:18 but generally see 1P2:13 "We ought to obey God rather than men. If we heard this read in the Gk, we would hear a doubled sound, a judicial emphasis, PARANGELIA PARANGEILAMEN "with a command, we command you." TA ONAMATI "The Name." Note that Peter answers the two accusations 1)you teach in disobedience to our command 2)you intend to blame us for the blood of this man, in the order given in v29 and v30.
31 ARCHAGON "Prince" KJV & NIV our modern word "architect" probably comes from this root. see Heb 2:10
32"we are his witnesses" this is a first hand report, see 1:8; "God hath given" so it's not obtained by study, especially significant message to a group noted for their fondness for scholarly titles.
33 "cut" lit, but implied "to the heart" but unfortunately for them, not to a good purpose.
34 "Gamaliel" good strategy to have the Apostles moved out. They were removed as an object of anger, so the counsel could think more objectively, and also they were moved from harms way in case they didn't think more objectively.
35 - 40 Good logic
37 The one that brought Mary & Joseph to Bethlehem? or another? since? Lk2:2 implies there may have been others although v37 implies a most notable event.
38 TA NUN "and now" 4:29
39( ) THEOMACHOI lit. "those who would use a sword against God"
40 but they were willing enough to fight against the Apostles - "beaten them" earlier, they "charged them with a charge" here they "charge them with a beating" 5:28; see 4:28,42
41"rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for his name"
42"they ceased not"
1 "When the number of disciples was multiplied" see 9:31, 12:24, 2P1:2, Zech9:13. The NIV interprets this passage more fully and I think correctly, the first controversy in the new church was an ethnic problem - those Jews who spoke Aramaic and those Jews who spoke Greek. Later it was over the members in the church who spoke Latin and those who spoke Aramaic - Western Catholic and Eastern Orthodox, finally splitting in about A.D.1000. And still in 1200 and in 1500 killing Wycliff and seeking to kill Luther and others of those who would use any other language for the scriptures! (the Greek word here in v2 for "tables" is TRAPEDZAIS, lit. TRA for tetra, PED or PEZA for foot, so a four legged "footed" table, but from which we get trapezoid the mathematical term for a quadrilateral with only two parallel sides - and the medical term for a small bone in the wrist.)
3"among you" "full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom" No official title was given at this time, and we only use the transliterated Greek word for "servant" or "service" as used here DIAKONIA, deacon. SOPHIAS, "wisdom" see also v9,10.
4 "to prayer, and to the ministry of the word." The real task of the Elder.
5 "full of faith and of the Holy Ghost" of these seven named, ALL had Hellenistic names, there seems NO attempt at ethnic balance. One went from Proselyte to Deacon to Martyr, one Proselyte -> Deacon -> Evangelist (8:12+Eph4:11), four Proselyte -> Deacon -> Obscurity, one Proselyte -> Deacon -> Heretic (Rev2:6,15 see also M.H.) If we speak of investments, this is not a good ratio, in fact it is the road to ruin; if of baseball batter stats, not bad; one home-run, one hit, four fouls and one out.
6 This "laying on of hands" was a commissioning not an enduement; they already had the enduement v3.
7 "of the priests" that's what you get when you preach and teach in the temple! You get some of the priests converted, and you also get arrested and beaten 5:40.
8 "full of faith and power, did great wonders"
9 All Hellenistic Jews see v5
10 "Wisdom - and - the Spirit" it takes both.
11 The hired liars; "Moses""God"
13 "false" - - > (14) "Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place." This first part was the lie they used against Christ, the second they used later against Paul.
15 The sermon before a lynch mob follows in ch.7 Note: "face of an angel" but the Sanhedrin had Sadducees on it and they didn't believe in angels!
JBPhillips has a fascinating view of the flow of this chapter. He thinks that Stephen took the council on a history lesson showing how God did the leading of their forefathers thru ordinary men who were willing to listen, but around v42 Stephen sensed they were growing restless and he abruptly changed tactics and got to the main point. See how "they" changes to "ye"! When Stephen got to the application in v51 - that did it! Enough! v54 follows right on!
4 "when" really it was AFTER.
5 "Yet He promised"
8 "He gave him the covenant of circumcision"
9,10 Joseph -> gave him favour and wisdom
14-16 The language is a bit scrambled here. "three score and fifteen souls. MH re:Gen 46:27 says there were 70, but LXX has 75, Luke 3:36 also, and adds Cainan which is not in the Heb. text, but in the LXX. Some by excluding Joseph & sons = 64, then by adding sons of the 11 = 75.
22-29 ( )
25 "For he supposed his brethren"
35 ( )
37-39 ( ) see Ex34:6 "in their hearts"
38 "oracles" the Gk understood this to mean a supernatural utterance thru a human by a spirit.
41 to here, a "third party" history lesson, but after this he starts getting personal.
45 "Jesus" the LXX and NIV put "Joshua" which IS the Hebrew equivalent.
47-51 ( )
48 see 17:24
51 see vineyard. "Ye, the religious leaders," and "You the people" as the NIV. This v. identifies the Holy Spirit as the historic God.
54 "were cut to the heart" see 5:33, also note this is the same root word as Heb11:37 = sawn asunder. Of this v. one said, Some are incensed by the Spirit, Some are influenced by the Spirit, they go along, and Some are indwelt by the Spirit.
55,56 "Jesus standing" not seated!
57 "stopped their ears" proof that it was a willful sin - it's not politically correct to say this out-loud, but it is the same problem with the Jew today!
58 "stoned him" "the witnesses laid their clothes at the feet of a young man named Saul" NIV. Either he was a stooge of the crowd or an exciter of it. Perhaps he was too young to participate in the stoning, but responsible enough to guard the garments. In any case, it wasn't long after that he gained the power to accuse and to arrest others - 8:3.
60 "Lord, lay not his sin to their charge." EKOIMATHA, "he fell asleep" Kay Arthur contrasts this with the "sleep" in 1Cor11:30; Unger calls this KOIMONTAI a sleep of indolence, of a lazy loafer.
1 SUNEUDOKON "consenting" lit. "with, to approve,"also tx "to sympathize with." It seems fellowship was sacrificed to evangelism.+v4.
3 see 7:57 [Why were the apostles not arrested also? - fear of public reaction, I suspect.]
5 KATELTHON "down" since Jerusalem was on a hill every direction away from the city was spoken of as "down." This seems as odd, but it is only because we are so used to maps having "north" as "up" and "south" as "down." So Phillip went "down" to the North to Samaria.
7 The signs that "should follow."
9 Simon, according to one source, was a leading Gnostic, and wrote "The Great Revelation." MAGEUON "sorcery" magic; "the great one."
10 And the people called him "the great one," and had done so for some long time v11.
12 But. When the people believed and were baptized - and when Simon himself (we use "himself" with a name for "great" people, don't we) believed and was baptized, he began to hang around Phillip. I do not recall seeing this word PROSKAPTERON "continued with" used elsewhere to describe a "follower."
14 Evidently the Apostles felt that Phillip needed backup. And it would seem that the message of Phillip was not quite complete v16.
15 See v5, although a different word for "came down."
16 EPIPEPTOTOKOS "fallen upon"
17 see 6:6 for another example of "laying on of hands," but to a different purpose.
18 He overvalued the power of money and planned to gain more money by it. If he thought they valued money as much as he did, he got a rude surprise in v20.
19 Note that he doesn't ask them to lay hands on himself to receive the Holy Spirit - for himself, EXOUSIAN "power (authority)."
20 JBPhillips translates this very forcefully and somewhat crudely by contemporary language standards - "To hell with you - and your money!" I include it here for shock value. Peter was not much concerned with being "nice" in delivering this strong message.
22 "Of this" most particular; "thy wickedness" quite personal, "and" there's more to do besides repent - "pray." The "perhaps" has to do with his sincerity.
24 You "pray for me", his concern is more that the judgement be avoided than that his corruption be mortified (MH). Most prayer requests are like this! [Only a nervous Calvinist agonizes over the spiritual state of Simon the Sorcerer - was he "saved' or not?]
26 Quite specific instructions.
27 Candace was a successor of Sheba (who met with Solomon); one source said this was her title, not her name. "Eunuch" in body? or only as a title? Ethiopia, probably referred to the whole upper Nile region rather than only to the country we now know by this name. "Charge of all her treasure," a very high official. "To worship," hence a proselyte of the Jews religion.
28 "Was returning" God seems to wait until it is too late! HARMATOS "chariot" armored car? ANEGINOSKEN "read"
30 AKOUSEN "heard" So, he was reading out loud, now remember that Phillip was a Hellenist. Though a Jew, Greek was his native tongue and the Eunuch was reading the LXX (the Greek translation of the O.T. made by "70" scholars.) There is a neat play on words here in the Greek GINOSKEIS HA ANAGINOSKEIS - "Ho pilgrim - do you insight what you recite?"
31 "How can I except some man should guide me?"
32 Isa53:7 - since He opened not His mouth, it must be obvious that he died voluntarily, wrongfully.
33 Heb.="He was taken from prison & judgement" = "hurried with violence from one judgement to the other" or "from force from judgement he was taken away" = "because of their fury and their haste he was denied justice."
34 ( ) such clear questions!
35 "and preached unto him Jesus"
36,37 ( ) [v37 omitted by Nestles, sorry, but that means we can't lean a heavy doctrine on it, or use it as a proof text.]
39 "he went on his way rejoicing." This whole story is a direct fulfillment of Ps68:31.
40 Azotus is our modern Ashdod @ 30 miles from Gaza. Caesarea was Phillip's home, see 21:8.
2 Christians went thru three sets of descriptive titles in these early days; first called "preachers of the Name" 5:28,40,9:16, here "of this way" only later "Christians" ( see in 11:26) see also Dan10:7
3-7 ( )
3 EXAIPHNAS - PHOS "suddenly" "light" the "EX" means "out," hence, "suddenly from out of nowhere"
4 Light shows with sound are nothing new. Note THIS Saul persecuted "me," the second David, as the earlier Saul persecuted the first David. Some other doublings for emphasis: Gen22:11 "Abraham, Abraham", Ex3:4 "Moses, Moses", Is3:10 "Samuel, Samuel", Jer22:29 "earth, earth", Mt7:22 "Lord, Lord", Mt23:37,38 "O Jerusalem, O Jerusalem", Mt27:46 "My God, My God", Lk10:41 "Martha, Martha" Lk22:31 "Simon, Simon" and here "Saul, Saul.
5 "it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks" is a catchy phrase, but, sorry, evidently it is not in the best texts.
7 AKOUONTES "hearing" the genitive case = the sound v4; the accusative case = "the voice."
10 Like Samuel!
11 "Behold he prayeth"
13 "Then" - v15 "But" "chosen vessel" "and" "and" SKEUOS "vessel" a utility vessel, not a display vessel.
16 "he must suffer" "for my name"
17 see 19:29
18 Saul the Pharisee "was baptized"
20 "straightway he preached Christ"
22 SUNECHUNNEN - SUMBIBADZON "confounding - proving." These words are opposites, see Eph4:16. Lit. "they were coming apart at the seams and he was putting them back together another way."
23 Saul went from persecutor to persecuted rather quickly as far as the Jewish leadership was concerned, but a little too quickly for the church to accept him - v.26
25 The apostle Paul, a "basket case"? SPURIDI "basket" a woven rope basket, different from a lunch basket or a market basket.
27 "But Barnabus", DIAGASATO, "declared" this was not a simple "telling" but he "diagrammed it, he spelled it all out to them."
30 Sent him home - to Tarsus.
31 "churches" "walking in the fear of the lord" see 6:1, "were multiplied."
32 MH says Lydda is the Lod of 1Chr19:12 +Ezr2:33.
34 "make thy bed" "tidy up"
35 Saron see Is55:10
36 see Jonah, Joppa also called Japho, today Tel Aviv. MATHATRIA only use in NT ref of a woman. Both Dorcas (Gk) and Tabitha (Aramaic) mean gazelle, deer or doe, see v39.
38 MATHATAI "disciples" see notes v36.
2 "one that feared God with all his house"
4 "Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God."
10 Lit. "There came on him an ecstasy;" EKSTASIS.
15 "What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common."
19 One ancient mms has 2, other do not have the number.
20 DIAKRINOMENOS "doubting nothing:" he was to set aside his thinking about the legal aspects of the Jewish code. We get our word "criminal" from this root.
23,24 evidently the journey took them a very long day. Joppa (modern Tel Aviv) is on the Mediterranean Seacoast a bit North of Jerusalem and Caesarea, home of Roman Procurators, also on the seacoast some 30 miles farther north. There is another city named Caesarea Philippi north of the Sea of Galilee, more than a hundred miles away. Jonah took ship from Joppa - to run away from God's "word" that he minister to the Gentiles; Peter received three "words" to assure him to go to minister to a gentile. See more notes at Jonah about the Jewish mindset re. associations with gentiles.
25 This is a formal gathering of intimate friends and relatives - and - Cornelius, a Roman Officer goes out and prostrates himself before the arriving Jewish fisherman!
26 ( ) with 28
29 "Therefore came I unto you without gainsaying,"
33 "to hear all things that are commanded thee of God" KJV; "to listen to everything the Lord has commanded you to tell us." NIV The focus seems to be different in these two versions - "God, thru you" and "God to us." The Gk word order seems to be somewhat in between, not that this small difference is all that insightful. But it is just this shift from "the Jew" to "the message" that must capture Peter's attention, and, indeed, this is what first comes out of his mouth...v34
34 ( ) with 41 see 1Pet1:17. God is no respecter of persons, yet He selects to whom He reveals truth. ? Ah, it is no longer on the basis of race, but transracially, it is still God choosing. The choosing remains, but the base has been broadened. see v35, next.
35 ( ) PANTI ETHNEI our prefix "pan" and "ethnic group." ERGADZOMENOS the ERG is the unit of work in Physics - and - we Evangelicals are so intent on not mixing works with faith in the doctrine of salvation that we sometimes skip over works when we need to see it.
36 Yes, the Word of God did come thru the Jew, both the message composed of "words" and the means, the LOGON Himself.
38 DIABOLOU "devil"
40 see 2:32-36+1Pet1:17
41 God set this whole thing up and chose us beforehand so that we would be prepared as witnesses to this event, and then ...
42 ( ) "he commanded us to preach - he" KARUXAI, the Gk word sounds like a rooster crowing, and so it should be - a public announcement in the dawn of the new day.
43 ( ) "that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins."
44 "on all them"
45 Note the designation of the Jewish believers as those of the "circumcision" a matter to be discussed at some length in the near future. EXESTASAN, "amazed" our "filled with ecstasy;" DOREA "gift" the thing given, EKKECHUTAI "poured out" NIV, the manner given.
47 And, baptism takes us back to near the start of Peters words in v37. The odd negative sentence construction is indication to me of the odd negative mindset that still lingered in the Jewish followers.
48 The baptismal formula - "in the name of Jesus Christ." NIV
2 DIEKRINONTO "contended" KJV, "criticized" NIV, legalism! See our word "criminal," it was contentious criticism based on their understanding of what was against the law.
7 (A)The command of the Lord.
12 "nothing doubting" (B)The reassurance. And, the word for "doubting" is similar to the word used in v2, same root, DIAKRINANTA.
15 HOSPER, "as" this clause of comparison is used in 2:2 (!). Instead of an "IF - THEN" structure to this sentence and hence to their thinking, we have a "SINCE - THEN." [This word HOSPER, translated "as" is more complicated than a simple "as." In a very technical grammatical sense this sentence and the imbedded idea is made up of an APODOSIS, a beginning part of a comparison and a PROTASIS, the comparison itself. See an unabridged Webster, the smaller ones may not have it. It originally applied to IF - THEN constructions, but Grammarians apply it to other such comparisons SINCE - THEN and etc. Perhaps it would be better to translate this sentence in Acts then with a much stronger "JUST AS" or "SINCE GOD HAS GIVEN THEM EXACTLY LIKE US." It is the "similarity," the "exactness" that boggled the minds of these STILL legalistically minded followers of the Messiah.] (C)The obedience of His servant.
16 "Baptized with the Holy Ghost" see Mt3:11.
17 "like gift" "what was I, that I could withstand God?" ISAN, "like" our prefix, "iso" as isomorphic and etc. means "same as." (D)The testimony.
18 HASUCHASAN, (note the "h" or rough breathing," this word is not the "negative" of some other expression) "they held their peace" implys they were making considerable objection up to this point. It took an explosion to break down the wall of Jewish ethnic exclusiveness. (still !)
19,20 ETHNESIN v18, and HELLANAS v20, Gentiles were now targeted with the Gospel.
20 (E)The fruit of obedience.
23 "was glad--full of the Holy Ghost"
25 Luke may have met them here(?) This was, likely, Luke's home church.
26 "And the disciples were called [of God] Christians first in Antioch." The Jews wouldn't have used "Christ = Messiah" as a nickname - so evidently the pagan did to distinguish between the Jew and the Christian Jew. See 9:2 for more notes on this name change. MH notes that they took their designation not from "JESUS" His personal name, but from "CHRIST" His office. Note the interesting chain v20 some scattered refugees preach to gentiles and make converts, then v22 Barnabas preaches and has more converts (OCHLOS, a crowd) then seeks out Saul v25 and v26 "when he had found him - - taught many people - a whole year" and then "called Christians first in Antioch." Evidently Saul's teaching was so different from what they had heard before and evidently their deportment thereafter was so different from what the pagans had seen before that a new designation was needed to account for this difference. It is also interesting that Saul was changed to Paul not much later in the story. But even more interesting, however, only here and 26:28 + 1Pet 4:16 is the designation "Christian" used in Scripture! CHRISMA means "oil - as for annointing," so the title CHRISTOS can also be translated as "The Annointed One," or since the new converts were filled with the Holy Spirit in a new and different way than they had seen before, they too were called "Annointed Ones" or CHRISTIANOS. As a title the Gk. CHRISTOS = Heb. MESSIAH. [Also CHRISTOS in some other Greek literature means whitewasher - maybe like Rev7:14.] Antioch was the first church to send missionaries 13:2 + see 9:2
28 See also 21:10, 11 another prophesy. "all the world" note their simple ego "all the known world" = "the Roman Empire;" (OIKOUNEMAN "inhabited earth"). "days of Claudius Caesar" from the 2nd to the 4th year of his "days." MH documents some historical records of this prophetic fullfillment - by Josephus and others.
1 "the king" now the civil power persecutes.
2 IAKOBON, "James" our equivalent to the Hebrew name Jacob, "killed James the brother of John -with the sword" another James (bro. of Joses) v.17 See MH
4 "in prison" Peter's been here before (5:18), "four quaternians of soldiers" (4 guards each in 4 watches) this time he won't escape; intending to make a public spectacle of it, and "after" so as not to have the godly ones make a demand that he be released "according to the custom," PASCHA, passover, not "Easter."
5 EKTENOS "without ceasing" or "earnestly" probably, our word "tenacious comes from this;" See Jesus in the Garden Lk22:44, + 1P1:22.
6 "but - the same night Peter was sleeping" the last minute - God's style; chained to two and with two standing guard - they really, really didn't want him to escape this time.
7 AGGELOS KURIOU, "angel of the Lord" Is this a special angel? "smote Peter" - see v23
8 The angel freed him, but he had to dress himself - almost (he had to be told every little detail - was he that fuzzy-headed? see v11.)
10 AUTOMATA, "of itself" our word "automatic."
14 "opened not the gate for gladness," she was a very young girl.
15 angel or messenger, guardian angels are usually plural as in Mt18:10, Lk16:22, Heb1:14, but above in v7 we have a particular title "angel of the Lord." More probably a human messenger as Lk7:24,27, 9:52 - or were they actually this superstitious?
16 fortunately the answer to their prayers kept knocking v5
17 the other James of v2
18 "no small stir"
19"he examined the keepers, and commanded that they should be put to death." This is further proof of Herod's wickedness, he wanted Peter's blood so much that he ordered the guards put to death.
23 "angel of the Lord" "smote him" contrast v7; SKOLAKOBROTOS, modern medical term for "tapeworm."
24 "the word of God grew and multiplied" see 6:1 There's a little play on Greek words here, Herod died, the word grew.
1 "church" "teachers" the church was a teaching center. Note the ethnic, political and religious diversity. NIGER, "Niger" means "black" was he a black man?
2 "fasted - Holy Ghost said" The word for "ministered" is LITOURGOUNTON from which we get our "liturgical," a formal type of service.
3 "fasted" the "sent" of v3 is not the same Gk word as v4; a "letting loose" and a "directed to" a generally and a specifically.
4 "So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost" their "mission board." Notice the care for correct names 4-9.
7 "Paulus" a tribal title - adopted by some to identify with the "gene" that sponsored their inheritable Roman citizenship - Saul here reverts to his Roman name.
9 "Saul" margin says means Destroyer, "Paul" margin says means "worker;" Saul, "one who tears down" was 180degrees out of phase with Paul, "one who builds up." Another note, Saul = Hebrew = "desired" (by his mommy, hence spoiled?) Paul = Greek = "little, some say only 4'6" but he took a gentile name - was this part of the reason the Jews persecuted him so? Did Saul see here in Elymas a bit of himself?
13 "John departing" back to v5 - short ministry.
18 "suffered" margin notes ETROPOPHORESEN, "suffered them" or "endured them" perhaps for ETROPHOPHORESEN, bore, or, fed them, as a nurse beareth, or feedeth her child; or "he educated them" so MH (Ex19:4, Deut1:31, 32:11, Isa46:3,4, 63:9, Hos11:3,) according to the LXX and so Chrytsostom. [If we took a little of both we would have: "The teacher endures while the pupil learns."]
20 "he gave - four hundred and fifty years" if God gave - then we can say: the government is a reflection of what God thinks about the people. From Exodus to David's expulsion of the Jebusites from Zion = 450 years - mostly under judges; or Joshua's death to Eli's death = 339 years but they were oppressed by several nations a total of 111 years which then totals 450. Either way, this is a difficult passage.
22 HEURON, "found" God seeking! Implies that God ransacked all the families of Israel - MH. "a man after mine own heart" and this is said about David before he was anointed 1Sa13:14
26 ( )
27 "because" "they knew him not" "NOR YET" "the voices of the prophets" see 3:17
28,29 "they - they - they" these though Jews were far away - contrast with 2:23.
30 "But God"+Eph2:4
31 "his witnesses"
33 "second Psalm" shows order of Psalms Ps2:7. fulfilled in Christ: (1) birth
34 (2) Resurrection. "Mercies of David" TA HOSTA or TA HOSIA, margin notes "holy, or just things: which word the LXX both in the place of Isa55:3 and in many others, use for that which is in the Hebrew, mercies."
35 (3) Incorruption "another Psalm" see note v33 Ps16:10
36,37 "David - his body decayed" "did not see decay" (NIV) [An argument that Jesus is greater than David] DIAPHTHORAN "decay" or "corruption" used 4 times, same v34-37
37 So, Christ "ever lives" to see His own will executed!
38 NOTE! "preached unto you the forgiveness of sins"
39 NOTE! ( ) "justified from all things"
41 "despisers" LXX of Hab1:5 - destruction of Jerusalem by Chaldeans - by Romans - foretold. "for I work a work in your days, a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you." True of the Jew still. The choice is "to be wonderfully saved," or "to wonderfully perish." The "declare it to you" part could be expanded to read "Do not flatter yourselves that your religion will protect you."
45 Hence a willful opposition; pride 45-47 God's Word is inspired, and Paul is inspired to write God's Word.
47 "I have set thee to be a light of the gentiles" Isa42:6 Proof of the mission of the Jew. +Ruth4:4
48 "as many as were ordained to eternal life believed. TETAGMENOI, "ordained" "inclined."
52 ( )
2 EKAKOSAN "evil affected" (KJV), "poisoned" (NIV), "embittered" What made it so easy to stir up the Jews against the teaching concerning Jesus? They had the notion that they were the children of God because of some external activity or ethnic connection - without the necessity of a changed heart. Preach a message that disturbs the "easy believism" of any group and they are set to be easily stirred against your message and against YOU!
3 DIATRIPSAN "speaking" our word "diatribe" meaning they repeated with some intensity, the same message over and over again (and the oppostiion to that message increased). The message was "grace" and it was backed up with real spiritual power.
4 ESCHISTHA "divided" our word schism, divided into parties or camps. "apostles" = Paul & Barnabus.
5 HUBRISAI "to use them despitefully" our word "hubris" insolence or arrogance resulting from excessive pride or from passion.
8 modern church?
9 IDON "perceiving" from OIDATE a subjective (internal) knowing. The message came not from the man, but from inside Paul. Same in v11 "saw."
13 "priest of Jupiter" back to v12, "before" could mean that the temple was "older" than the city or that it was "outside" the entrance of the city.
15 HOMOIOPATHEIS "of like passions" or "same nature" see Jas5:17. This word has been adopted by a branch of medical practice.
17 contrast 28:5
18 ( ) then 19 - review notes to v2,3. The two verses, so close, one after the other, and yet so far apart - from intended worship to stoning - to the "death."
20 Did the disciples "surround" Paul to keep "more" stones from hitting him? Picked up Timothy here?
21 Timothy along, see 2Tim3:10,11 - it was a stoning that Paul witnessed that may have played a part in his own conversion.
22 "Exhorting" and/or as NIV "encouraging." "that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God." The modern church skips this verse! even denies that it was written.
23 "with fasting"
27 This is the sort of PR men we need in the church "Praising and Reporting."
Acts 15 see also Gal 1&2.
1 THIS is the legalism fought by the 1st century church - we fight other legalisms. Everybody wants to identify some "thing" that if kept will allow one to call himself a child of God but without a changed heart.+28,29
2 "no small" a real flap, big enough to send to Jerusalem for a ruling!
5 (Odd sentence construction?)The accusers, "Pharisees" in the church - we got 'em still.
7 The defense (1)Peter, then (2&3)v12 Barnabas & Paul, then (4)v13 James, the brother of Jesus (not the brother of John.) see also Gal2:7 [note this was not a free-for-all discussion with anonymous remarks from the back-row. Those who contributed had to stand to their position and identify themselves.]
8 HO KARDIOGNOSTAS THEO, lit. "the heartknower God," interesting that he uses here the kind of knowing that is objective rather than intuitive.
10 PEIRADZETE, a test to the breaking point. "which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?"
11 ( ) "And we get saved the same way as they!" Note that it was Peter who did the theological presentation and Barnabas and Paul who did the experiential presentation - quite the opposite of what we have come to believe.
14 EPESKEPSATO "visit" our name Episcopalian. Our "Eng. word "visit" means a social visit. The Gk. can mean "to inspect," "to look upon in order to help or to benefit." This wd. is used in other places to indicate something like a bank examiner; an empowered expert. "A people for His Name."
15 "as it is written" the final appeal is to the Old Testament (as follows).
16 "After this;" does missions to the gentiles work to benefit the Jews? see also Amos9:11,12 +see MH
17,18 see NIV for what seems to be a clearer translation.
20 He orders a written declaration of their ruling be sent back; (1)Pollutions of idols, (2)fornication, (3)things strangled, (4)from blood. v29. (1) was a special problem with gentiles (Greeks and Romans), (2) everyone, and (3) and (4) for Jews.
21 James assumes that they will be familiar with the law of Moses, and have it as a general guide - anyway.
22 By this time, there were different ranks of church leaders: Apostles and there were Elders, but they were listed on a par with "the assembly." Paul here gets Silas "by appointment."
23 note letter(s), assumed plural. [also, see pg xxxvi, Zondervan, for CHAIREIN an epistolary imperative.]
25 GENOMENOIS, "being assembled" the Gk. seems more to emphasize the process leading to the end result. It isn't so much that "we all agree" as "we have all come to agree." Arguments are not a bad thing if they result in this sort of clarity. It also proves that it was NOT just Paul who lead the church off into a new direction. True, he did spark the issue, but he did not make the key arguments in favor of the new declaration. "with one accord"
28,29( ) "idols" +1Co10:25 later modified- esp. after the temple destroyed; "fornication" +1Co5:1 later intensified (MH thinks this is a prohibition of marriage within the degrees listed in the Levitical law.)Lev 17 & 18. Note also that it ends with a positive spin "ye shall do well." James lists the same 4 but not in the same order as presented in Lev17 - here presented in the same order.
32 "many" +20:7 "confirmed" or "comforted them" (some mms. add "but Silas decided to remain there.")
36 "Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord and see how they do" - follow up work.
39 PAROXUSMOS strong word! our "paroxysm" a sudden attack or spasm.
1 Introduce - Timothy.
3 circumcised! see Gal2:1+3 [Paul circumcised him in v3 and then in v4 Paul delivered the decisions reached by the apostles - very, very strange!]
4 DOGMATA, "decrees" These instructions, though very early in the new church life, were not held lightly.
6 closed door, v7 closed door, v8 no complaint, v9 open door.
7 Mysia, ( Circero used "Mysorum ultimus" as a proverb = a most despicable man.)
8 Troas is Troy
9 "immediately;" note "them" in v7, but "we" here. Is this where Luke joins? [See "we" in v10,11,16, 20:5,15, 21:1,8, 27:1, 28:16]
12 "colony" A Roman Colony - having the rights of citizenship, tax free - that's why v37-40 so shaking to city officials. Alexander the Gt. built his empire on this base. Neapolis = lit. "new city." Bauer says it was the harbor of Philippi in Macedonia (pg 536 #3) Evidently the harbor had silted up by the time of Paul and a "new city" had been built near the sea, then they traveled on to the main city of Philippi farther inland. See intro to Philippians for more.
13 In small crowded, especially in pagan, households it is difficult to find a quiet corner in which to collect ones thoughts enough to pray. Emergency prayers can be made anywhere, but devotional prayers and prayers aimed at communing with God, that is, prayers aimed at learning to live with God, take time and effort. We are so carnal and so filled with ourselves that it takes time to learn and to practice this sort of prayer. Our busy electronic and paper glutted lives are surely as cluttered as was theirs. Perhaps a "river side" "where prayer was wont to be made?"
15 It is not necessary for us to believe that these events took place on the same day.
16 PUTHONA "spirit of divination" lit. Python, a snake. The serpent symbol has represented demonic activity from truly ancient times, perhaps harking all the way back to the Garden of Eden.
17 lit. "a way" as contrasted with "the way." What else would we expect a wily demon to announce?
18 EXALTHEN "he came" however, the Gk is neuter, so "it exited" is better.
19 "gains;" there's a little play on words here - the demon exited and their gains exited! (same word). "Silas" probably, "Silvanus" - probably also a Roman citizen. The "Roman citizen" part goes along with the accusation in v21. They are Jews, we are Romans. They trouble the "city" with illegal ideas and practices - illegal for Romans. [If it causes us to lose our source of profit it must be illegal, or anyway, it ought to be illegal. The bottom line IS the bottom line! And with these words a top to bottom mob scene follows.]
25 "sang praises" "You couldn't have invented a worse circumstance or a better response." see v30 1Chr20:21,22, 1Co14:15
30 "Sirs, what must I do to be saved?" DEI, "must I do" The one who asks "What must I do to be saved?" with an emphasis on the "do" is like any other pagan, but the one who asks with a view to "How do I get started?" is started rightly - for himself and for those dear to him. This same word is used in 5:29.
31 ( )
32 So evidently they adjourned to a more convenient place where the family could join them to carry on the conversation, and then after the baptisms they went to his house. Or maybe v34 has to do only with the change of hospitality. At first they were invited to explain something, now they were invited as friends and guests.
40 "they comforted them" Ho, see v23!
1 Thessalonica capitol of a province of Macedonia is modern Salonika.
2 "as his manner was" "reasoned with them out of the scriptures."
4 Lit. "were persuaded and threw in their lot with." Evidently the gospel resonated more with the Hellenists and the women than with Jews.
6 "they drew Jason" "These who have turned the world upside down are come hither also" The Jews world was threatened with being turned upside down. For centuries their culture became more and more isolated and smug. Salvation was of the Jew and for the Jew. Now they were told, and told with power that no external thing could save them without a truly changed heart, not even being born a Jew and keeping the Law of Moses.
7 This saying was used against Jesus at His trial and repeated here. It is the root reason Christianity is a threat to all tyrannical systems.
9 I guess the logic is "If you are going to have these men as guests, then you must post bond to insure that you will be accountable for any damage they cause." And evidently Jason and the others had reason to suspect this WOULD result in considerable loss to themselves - hence v10.
10 "Berea" (1) readiness of mind, (2) whether those things were so, (3) therefore many of them believed.
11 "daily" this, I think, is the passage that led the ancient monks to compose a "Daily Office" and moderns to speak of "daily devotions."
13 Note the unmanly behavior of the Jews, they couldn't compete with Paul in a debate, so they went about stirring up the crowd against them, negative consensus building. Our media driven political campaigns make this a chief tactic - and we shall be served as poorly as were they.
15 TACHISTA, here it means "as soon as possible."
16 A historian said that Athens had 300,000 idols. Athens was the philosophical and intellectual center of the world; the home of ancient philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Athens speaks to the intellect, Rome to the Will, and Jerusalem to the sensibility; Philosopher/Professor; Military/Senator; Prophet/Communicant. [Paul Szto said this represents the ancient view of the mind (to the Christian) Intellect, Will, Emotion. These are reflections of God's image - Knowledge, Righteousness, True Holiness. (Col3:10, Eph4:24) Man WAS to have dominion under God as - Prophet, King, Priest.]
18 Epicureans, interested in sensual pleasure. (see also Is22:13, Lk12:19, Ecc2:24, 8:15) Stoics, pantheists. SPERMOLOGOS, "What will this babbler say?" lit. a "seed picker," an "ignorant plagiarist" one who spouts quotes, but knows not the source nor the context. ZENON DAIMONION "strange gods," lit. "foreign demons." The Greeks (Athenians) had many gods, but they recognized Jesus to be Jewish, and hence, foreign, or, not Greek.
19 KAINA "new" lit. "new in quality" as contrasted with "new in point of time," although it was that too.
20 ZENIDZONTA, same root as in v18. Paul piqued their curiosity and they wanted to hear more. It does not mean more or less than this - at this point.
21 Drones? Maybe? It does indicate a fairly rich and peaceful society to have such leisure time available.
23 "worship" "are pious" AGNOOUNTES "ignorantly" this phrase has a bad reputation in our day that it did not have then. It simply means a subject or object about which one does not have clear knowledge.
24,25 This is an argument for the Unity of God (a) God made everything (b) God is everywhere (c) God is independent of all things. (see also 7:48) Worshipped in 25 is THERAPEUETAI "served or cured"
26-28 This is an argument for the Unity of the Race. (a) God made all men. (b)(v27) God made all men to seek after and find him. (c)(v28) (if b, then) All men are dependent upon Him - and the snobbish boast of the Jews that they are superior to the Greeks (religiously) and of the Greeks that they are superior to the Jews (culturally) is childish silliness. As the (this) God has appointed the yearly seasons to apply to ALL races of mankind, so He has appointed the boundaries of where they shall live.
28 ZOMEN, KINOUMETHA, physical, zoological life, and ordinary physical, kinetic movement; this is not a "spiritual" passage. Paul quotes Aratus a Gk. poet of Cilicia "For we are also his offspring." - AND he hints he knows his source!(see notes v18)
29 ENTHUMASEOS, "skill" this word is left out of the KJV. It implies something from the mind, perhaps the imagination or some mystical (artsy) imagination.
30,31 This is an argument for the Unity of Redemption. (a) God winked (overlooked), but now commandeth all men everywhere (and all throughout ages) to repent (Paul isn't bashful to use THAT word, METANOEIN, a change of mind/heart). (b) He will judge the world. (c) He hath given assurance unto all.
32-34 Mockers, Procrastinators, Receivers.
34 Areopagite, a supreme court justice; prerequisite, to have been a governor.
2 Claudia - 'til 7/51A.D. see more notes v12.
6( ) "opposed themselves" The word "themselves" is not in the Gk. text, but it is a good translators commentary of what took place. (see Eph) "from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles. This is a significant moment in the life of the church!!! Paul said something like this before, but this time it was followed with v.9.
7 "And he departed thence, and ..." went next door! Titus Justus, hence probably a Roman gentile.
9 "Then spake the Lord to Paul."
10 "For I am with thee"
12 Lucius Junius Amuaeus Gallio, (proconcul 7/51 - 6/52 see M.H.) famous for his kindness, was the elder half-brother of philosopher Seneca. Seneca was tutor to Nero. Nero was famous for his cruelty. "Jews," see v17 for the reaction of the "Greeks."
13 Whose law? Moses? Rabbinic? Rome? The official emperor worship allowed certain legal religions, Judahism was one such. The Jews are here asking the Roman court to distinguish between Jews and Christians and to declare Christianity outlawed - their request was refused. Gallio was new and seemed naive. The Jews thought he wouldn't be able to distinguish between Roman law and Jewish customs.
14 "about to open his mouth" "wicked lewdness" has to do with legal villainy.
15 "look ye to it" he wasn't so naive after all (notes v13)
17 "Greeks" Why did the Greeks get upset, and why did they pick on Sosthenes?(1Co 1:1, 5 years later) and why didn't Gallio "care?" because he probably thought they were all crazy. A better tx. "but Gallio had no responsibility for this."
18 Syria, probably the area known today as Lebanon. Vows were popular with Jews. This business of trying to maintain favor with Jewish customs caused great problems for Paul. Vows are not to be encouraged for modern Christians. They seriously confuse our relationship with God. God is not manipulated into doing anything more for us than He has done in Jesus Christ. Indeed, what more could He do! Besides, if God CAN be manipulated to do things for us, then who is in charge? If a vow is looked on as a personal discipline, then perhaps it can be considered, but even then, why make a vow? Vows are strong stuff. Better to use some other self-imposed spiritual or social discipline technique. If one makes a vow and then breaks it, he has sinned against God, whereas if he makes some contract with himself and he breaks it, he has merely embarrassed himself. (If image, embarrassment is more important than substance, sin - then your spiritual understanding is quite adolescent - and - under O.T. law, children are not allowed to make vows without parental consent.) Think it over carefully before you make a vow.
21 "if God will"
26 AKRIBESTERON, "more perfectly" it is the same root word as in v25. What Apollos knew, he knew correctly, but he needed further teaching, see 19:1-6
28 "shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ.
[a)John's baptism/Spirit baptism, b)Paul's miracles/Jews miracles (evil spirits beat them up), c)Cleansing of sorcery/opposition and riot by silversmiths of Artemis.]
2 scratch "Have" replace with "Did;" scratch "since" replace with "when;" underline "ye believed?"
3 "Unto what then were ye baptized?" We have whole churches of people today who wish to call themselves "Christians" who would not recognize the voice of the indwelling Holy Spirit if He hollered at them, but He doesn't holler; and they know nothing of repentance, neither as a doctrine nor as a Biblical practice. It cannot be done. It doesn't work that way!
6 "the Holy Ghost came on"
8 "kingdom of God" Church? Millennium? Eternal Heaven?
9 "that way" "disputing daily in the school of one Tyrannus" see v23 + 11:26
10 "all they which dwelt in Asia"
11 "special miracles" The Greek is a little softer than the translations; lit. "powerful deeds, not the ordinary."
12 ( )"the evil spirits went out of them"
13-16( ) EXORKISTON, "exorcists" only other Mt26:63 implies magical incantations; the usual word is EKBALLO, "to throw out."
15 GINOSKO, then EPISTAMAI "know" to know by observation, then, "know" to be acquainted with. Perhaps a better translation might be "Jesus I know about and Paul I recognize, but who are you?
16 "naked and wounded" the word "wounded" KJV or "bleeding" NIV is not in the Gk. (it is implied?)
17 "the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified"
18 ( )
19 quite a pile! a marginal note has this equal to about 50,000 days wages.
21 "in the spirit" go back to v1, There's no mention of problems at Ephesus. But he must have had them - see 1Co15:32, 2Co1:8,9.
23 "that way" didn't the name "Christian" stick? see v9 + 11:26
25 "ye know that by this craft we have our wealth"
27 "the world worshippeth" well, the civilized world anyway, maybe like "Christian America" worships.
28 Great is the need of our pocketbooks. They just exploded!
29 "confusion" for Gaius see 20:4, and for Aristarchus see Col 4:10.xx
32 "the more part knew not wherefore they were come together" typical crowd!
33 Alexander, some think this is 2Tim4:14 and even 1Tim1:20. The Jews wished him punished as a Christian. The Greeks saw him as a Jew (v34). The race/religion issue confused the masses - and thus all the more upset the Jews. The mob hated the Jews, Alexander was to tell how the Jews hated Paul, and hence how they hated him, thus serving as a defense of himself, but v34.
34 Can't you just hear them, "Hoo, Hoo, Great is Diana of the Ephesians! Hoo, Hoo." - for two hours! It was a football or a soccer riot over a local team they felt had been insulted.
35 DIOPETOUS, "Jupiter" KJV, "heavens" NIV, The idol of Diana or Artemis(Roman names vs Greek names) according to tradition was carved from a large black meteorite. It had the general form of a woman with a pretty face and with arms and legs, but a torso covered with numerous breasts - representing fertility.
41 "Now you guys go on home."
2 Paul preached long sermons! v7.
4 Seven men, Secundus may well have been a former slave, the person-hood of a slave wasn't valued enough to merit a name, only a number, from Latin meaning "second" see also Ro16:22,23.
7 See Mt28:1 for this same way of naming the days of the week. Paul preached really long sermons! v2,11.
9 KATENECHTHEIS, "fallen into," lit. "overborne." Twice, in this verse, the author mentions that sleep "overtook" the young man - it wasn't his fault!
11 Paul preached really, really long sermons! v.2,7.
20 "taught you publickly, and from house to house."
21 "repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ."
22 EIDOS, "knowing; "See notes on "Know." "Spirit," "Ghost" in v23 same word.
23 ( )
24 "But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear unto myself."
26 "I am pure from the blood of all men" He uses the word "clean" a ritual cleanness, see Ezek 14 + 33
28 EPISKOPOUS "overseers"
32 ( ) see also 26:18 inheritance.
35 ANTILAMBANESTHAI "to support" or "to succor." This quote of Jesus is not otherwise recorded. LAMBANEIN "to receive" see similar earlier in this verse.
4 see also 20:23 + 21:11
5 EXARTISAI "to accomplish" 2Ti3:17
11 ( ) +v4
13 compare with Peter and with Christ, thus either a boast or a testimony.
14 "The will of the Lord be done."
18 PRESBUTEROI, "elders"
20 MURIADES, "thousands" usually translated as "ten thousands." "are all zealous of the law;" hmm, seems the "new church" is still mixing the gospel with the ceremonial law.
21 APOSTASIAN, this word is left out of the translation, it is our word "apostasy." They were accusing Paul of teaching the departure from Moses. They thoroughly confused the moral law of Moses with the Kosher laws. The priestly system and the ceremonial laws were fulfilled in Christ and were to be left behind, but the moral law of Moses was still in force for the gentiles AND for the Jews. Paul didn't tell the gentile converts NOT to circumcise, only that it was not necessary for salvation to BE circumcised. Contrast with Gal5:11 "neither to walk after the customs." Paul was a Jew, had previously taken vows, wished to be there at Pentecost, went to the temple of his own accord, and was assured of v.25 for the gentiles. He was submissive to the elders - AND he did not compromise the truth or his conscience. see 1Co9:19.
23 POIASON "Do therefore" Aorist active imperitive, therefore a command by those in v18,(John MacArthur) If so, then what follows cannot easily be blamed on Paul.
24 DAPANASON, "be at charges" they were requesting that Paul pay for any fees associated with the vows. The word for "walk" here is a more structured kind of walk than the word used in v21.
25 The language here used indicates they thought themselves "in charge" of the gentile converts.
27 After the 7 days, Paul's hair started to grow back and made him more recognizable?
28 Lies or exaggerations as the believing Jews in v21? see Ro15:30
38 SIKARION "murderers" KJV "terrorists" NIV, a Latin term for a public bandit different from 7:52.
40 Paul uses Greek to communicate with the Romans in v37, and now Hebrew to speak to the Jewish authorities. He did not use Latin or Aramaic the common language of either, but the "official" language in each case. Evidently Paul did not wish to speak to the mob, but to the leaders._
Acts 22 (Note, this is a double translation, having originally been delivered in Hebrew 21:40, then immediately translated into Greek, and now much later into English for us to read.)
1 APOLOGIAS "defence" we get our word "apology" from this. Lit. "I will uncover my logic to you."
2 see notes 21:40. It is one of the reasons Missionaries study language so much.
3 Note he lists his mentor "Gamaliel." This will serve him well, later. "as ye all are today."
4 "this way" the name "Christian" still hadn't caught on among the street Jews.
5 See how he directs his words to the authorities.
9 They may have heard the sound, but did not recognize it as a voice.
10 TETAKTAI, "appointed" it was a custom job.
14 "that thou shouldest know his will - see that Just One, - shouldest hear the voice of his mouth."
15 commission - to all men.
16 If the apostle Paul needed to be baptized, how do some say this ordinance is optional to the point of obsolescence?
18 TACHEI "quickly" could be "suddenly" as long as it is "suddenly and right now."
19,20 ( ) point to 21
21 ETHNA "gentiles" God said to Paul, "No, not your way."
22 "this word" points back to the word "gentiles." Jewish repugnance for gentiles was (is) monumental. see v1, see such racial pride. See the book of Jonah 750 years earlier - nothing had (has) changed.
24 "scourging" the Roman bosses and the soldiers didn't understand Hebrew, so they didn't understand what had just happened. If they had, I can well imagine they would have felt/acted quite differently.
28 (See NIV)+"But I was free born."
30 "from his bands" is not in the text, better in the NIV.
4 It was Paul's defiant manner they objected to, but it was probably the "whited wall" phrase that Paul apologized for.
5 "Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people" Stephen Olford commented that "If Paul had eye trouble, maybe he didn't see well enough to recognize..."
6 "Paul perceived that -" Phariseeism vs fanaticism; an intellect without religion vs a religion without intellect. Tactically, a brilliant move, see v7-10 - but it wasn't to the point in question! Well, a little bit, see last phrase of v9 (NIV), the "let us not fight against God"(KJV) is not in the text.
10 "there arose a great dissension"
12 they must have become powerful hungry.
14 ANATHEMATI ANETHEMATISAMEN, "cursed" with a curse.
16 God's messenger boy.
18 "who hath something to say"
19 "took him by the hand" must have been a little boy.
23 Left out of the translations is that the two he called were a "certain two" they must have been designated aides. 470 men. NIV says "at 9 tonight"
25 The Gk suggests he may have dictated this letter during the same session he was giving the other orders.
26 CHAIREIN a "greeting" reserved for special occasions, not the ordinary grammatical construction. see notes pg xxxvi
27 "army" KJV, "troops" NIV, Gk says simply, "soldiers, and puts the Roman thing at the end of the sentence, hence giving it slightly lesser significance than the KJV or the NIV would imply.
30 I don't know where the "farewell" came from.(KJV) It isn't in the Gk text.
1 HRATOROS, "orator" KJV "lawyer" NIV, probably both.
2 soft soap - see v.10,26, but see NIV for a closer translation i.e. "worthy deeds" and "providence" are better as "reforms" and "forethought."
3 KRATISTE "most excellent" Lk1:3 same word.
5 "a pestilent fellow" they accused him of having a contagious disease - ho! HAIRESEOS, "sect;" calling a movement or a group "a sects" brands it, in the minds of most religious leaders as heresy.+v14
7 This verse omitted by Nestle.
10 "unto this nation" Paul's speech is less flowery and more direct than the KJV. The NIV is closer to the original.
11 "twelve days"
13 "Neither can they prove..."
14 "the way - believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets." HAIRESIN, "sect" same v5. This is an interesting chain of logic. Paul is saying it is a style thing based on the mutually shared basic truth.
14-16 ( ) v16 is what produced v15. EIDESIS, or SUNEIDASIN "conscience" is used 32x in N.T.(Jn8:9 not this Gk mss.). Weak, 1Co8:7,10,12; defiled Tit1:15; seared 1Ti4:2; evil Heb10:22; pure 1Ti3:4, 2Ti1:3; Good Ac23:1,1Ti1:15,19; Heb13:18,1P3:16,21. "A conscience void of offence toward God, and toward men."
19 ( ) +25:16 see Mt18:15
22 "of that way" The NIV is a little clearer here, but that points up the political corruption of Felix.
24 "concerning the faith in Christ"v22
25 "self-control and the judgment to come "NIV Paul says this to a judge, a governor!- and he trembled, EMPHOBOS. "convenient" v27
27 "two years" in office? or with Paul?
6 "the next day" BAMATOS, "tribunal" the judgment seat.
7 "which they could not prove."
11 to the supreme court, CHARISASTHAI, note the first part of this word "charis;" as a favor; the Pesshita translates this as "just to please them."
12 +23:11; We cannot know what he discussed with the council, perhaps their stubborn bad attitude toward Paul is what made the judgment so short.
17 "without any delay" see 24:1+27+25:6
19 "their own superstition - of one Jesus" some contrast! "as I supposed" DEISIDAIMONIAS, "superstition" KJV, "religion" NIV and interlinear. (only other seems to be Ac17:22)
21 SEBASTOU, "Augustus" KJV, "emperor" NIV; seems more title than proper name.
22 Paul, or his message must have been different enough for even leaders to wish to hear him, or to hear what he had to say.
23 PHANTASIAS, "with great pomp" transliterated it would be "fantastic!", today we would say, "they made a media event out of it" all the city big-shots were there too. The logic of the following verses is so starkly simple that it is devastating to the case against the Jews and against the Roman politicians. The Jews were so desperately mad against any notion that Jesus could be the promised Messiah that they were willing to lie and to commit murder to cover it up, but they were a subject people and could not take direct action - except outside the "law." Now that Paul was protected BY the law, they schemed to use the Roman law to kill him for them. The lies they told against Paul and the Christians, the followers of the "Way," the followers of the "Name," eventually came back on them since the persecution against Paul and the Christians was applied to them also, and for the same basic reasons. Both Jews and Christians were committed monotheists, and hence were dogmatically opposed to emperor worship. The Christians had NO military ambitions and hence were no threat to Rome, but the Jews certainly did and were. And etc...
1 "stretched forth the hand" this was a formal speech.
3 "expert" is a little strong, perhaps the NIV is closer. In the Gk it is simply "one who knows;" the kind of knowing that comes from observation and experience.
5 HAIRESIN "sect" originally, simply "a school of thought," but since it has come to mean any thinking away from the "accepted school." I think, even in that day the word had a bit of an unsavory meaning, and that is exactly why Paul used it - they had used it against him, now he uses it to describe them and his earlier association with them. see also 24:5, Gal 5:20, 2P2:1
6 ( )
7 As the NIV, the name Agrippa is not in the text.
10 "many;" Paul says there were many he persecuted. PSAPHON, "my voice" but better as the NIV "vote;" lit. a "pebble" as was used to cast a private vote in the Roman senate.
11 "oft" Paul from here to about v20 is giving a brief personal testimony.
16 HUPERETAN "minister" a simple and rather lowly title; "I will appear "KJV " seems rather more correct than "will show" NIV (although a similar Gk word is used in v18 tx "eyes.")
17 "Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee"
18 KLARON "inheritance" lit. "a lot;" same root wd in 20:32.
19 ( )
20 (1)repent, (2)turn to God, (3)do works meet for repentance.
22 Paul says all his arguments are based on the O.T.
23 ( )"and to the gentiles"
24 ! MAINA - MAINA - v25 MAINOMAI from which we get our word "maniac."
26 "for this thing was not done in a corner"
28 NIV ends this with a "?" hmm. Note that he uses the title "Christian;" used only 3 times in scripture - see 11:26.
29 A real change from KJV to NIV. EUXAIMAN, "I would" KJV, "pray" NIV.
32 No, see 23:11
1 This soldier must have been special to Paul (and to Luke) for his name to have been preserved.
2 This "bus" was a local, not an express. (see v6) And another "special" person.
3 Reading the NIV, one might gain the impression the "needs" were mostly physical, but the Gk implies that they were more social.
6 Why all this detail about the registry of the ships? (+v2) Did Luke really like to travel this much?
10 ( )What is this verse all about? Did Paul have some simple foreboding or was it more a direct revelation?
11,12 Comfort desired so prudence ignored.
16 SKAPHAS, "boat," the skiff was loaded on board (more likely lashed under the stern overhang.)- see v30.
17 EKPESOSIN, the Gk footnotes point out that a word from the Classical Greek is used here to describe a ship being driven out of her course on to shoals, rocks, etc., lit. it means to "fall out of" or to "fall off of." So the silly notion that ancient sailors feared "falling off the edge" of the flat sea if they went too far west, may be merely a linguistic misunderstanding? a technical sailing phrase misinterpreted by the landlubbers - and then enthroned in all the history books lampooning the ignorant, excessively timid sailors? (same root wd used v26, 29)
21 Paul did an "I told you so!" but with a prophetic promise.
22 OUDEMIA, "no" this is an emphatic negative denying an alleged fact.
23 LATREUO, "serve" the more formal word for service.
24 "all" On the basis of this verse, we may conclude that Paul was commissioned by God to carry a message of divine purpose to the head of the superpower of that day. If so, then we may expect that head to be held accountable for this message some great day.
25 This is The Storm of Testimony or The Storm of Usefulness. see Mt 8:24. "be of good cheer for I believe God" they had to go on Paul's faith.
26, 29 EKPESEIN see note v17.
30 "as though they would"
31 see v40
32 Oh, there were more soldiers.(+v42) They cut the ropes to the skiff.
33 PROSDOKONTES "tarried" KJV or "constant suspense" NIV; it means "they sweated it out."
34 Paul (Luke) uses SOTARIAS, tx "health" or "survive" NIV, he meant it more strongly, I think - they were to "save their skins." No, this verse cannot be claimed as a cure for baldness.
35 "gave thanks to God in presence of them all"
42 and there were other prisoners.
2 "us - us" Luke was along.
3-6 ( ) "murderer - a god" contrast 14:18
7 "us - us"
9 "and were healed"
10, 11 The time sequence here is a bit confusing; the translators assume v11 comes before v10. Again the listing of the registry of the ship and of it's signet. The Gk lists only that it was DIOSKOUROIS, the translators added the commentary of the names of the gods.
13 PERIELTHONTES "fetched a compass" or "set sail" NIV, is a nautical term, the interlinear puts as "tacking." Only sailors would appreciate the difference.
20 "for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain"
22 "that every where it is spoken against" HAIRESEOS "sect" our "heresy' is from this Gk word, meaning here only that the "group holding these ideas" is not part of the main line. It has ALWAYS been dangerous to depart from the official version of anything.
23 Paul had a formal organized agenda to present. (TAXAMENOI, from which the scientific term taxonomy, an organized file system.) "persuading" "from morning to evening."
24 HAPISTOUN, "believed not" but it is stronger than simple "not believing," it is the negative of belief (PISTOUN means "faith" or "belief," and the "a" makes it negative; the rough breathing "h" is added to make the sentence smoother.) It is one thing to "not believe" it is quite another thing to "disbelieve." A similar thing could be said concerning the "agreed not." They probably had a real flap, and this is why Paul made the inflammatory statement in v26-28.
24-29 ( )
27 "they;" EKAMMUSAN, "closed" a compound word meaning "closed in opposition" and "against a mystery;" a mystery being something that was previously not understood, but now was being revealed. Paul is accusing them of "slamming the door against the revelation." God is showing them all the truth of an old puzzle and they not only don't want to listen, they reject it forcefully. AND, this is not a new problem with this people - so according to Isaiah and Paul. IASOMAI, "heal" the medical term for healing is derived from this Gk term. Their problem is not incurable - if... Verse 28 then becomes a prophesy for the next 2000 years!
29 not in Nestles text.
30-31 conclusion of Luke's story. The trial held in A.D. 62 is not reported, nor the death of James also in 62 (Stephen and the other James is recorded inside the Acts text). Paul died in 68. Jerusalem was besieged about then, finally being destroyed in 70. Hence we place this account in 61-62. See similar in the intro.